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Transforming Global Tax Practices: An Analysis of ICAI’s BEPS and MLI Technical Guide


The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (‘ICAI’) recently released the second edition of the Technical Guide on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (‘BEPS’) Action Plans (‘APs’) and Multilateral Instrument (‘MLI’) in January 2024. This comprehensive guide provides clear and informed guidance on implementing transparent international tax practices in an evolving global tax landscape. The release of this edition underscores ICAI’s commitment to facilitating a thorough understanding of BEPS APs and the MLI, thereby contributing to enhanced global tax compliance and governance. It is a vital resource for professionals seeking to adapt to the rapidly changing dynamics of international taxation.

About the Guide

BEPS refers to strategies employed by multinational enterprises to exploit gaps and mismatches in tax rules to artificially shift profits to low or no-tax locations. The consequences of BEPS are particularly severe for developing countries, which heavily rely on corporate income tax. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (‘OECD’), BEPS practices result in an estimated annual revenue loss of USD 100-240 billion globally.

In response, over 140 countries and jurisdictions have united under the OECD/G20 Inclusive Framework on BEPS, collaborating to implement 15 strategic measures aimed at curbing tax avoidance, harmonizing international tax regulations, and promoting transparency. This collective effort signifies a global commitment to combat BEPS and strengthen the integrity of the international tax system.

The ICAI’s Technical Guide on ‘BEPS APs and MLI’ is a crucial resource for tax professionals. It provides a detailed roadmap for understanding the key policy innovations introduced by the OECD/G20 BEPS Project and the MLI, covering both fundamental principles and complex technical aspects. The guide equips practitioners at various levels of expertise to effectively address BEPS-related challenges.

Each of the 15 BEPS APs targets a specific area of concern, such as hybrid mismatches, harmful tax practices, treaty abuse, and transfer pricing discrepancies. The guide offers an in-depth analysis of each Aps’ objectives, mechanisms, and expected impacts on national and international tax frameworks. It also highlights the MLI’s role in rapidly amending bilateral tax treaties, forming a cohesive approach to BEPS challenges.

As globalization continues to influence international taxation, understanding and implementing these measures is crucial for professionals aiming to limit tax avoidance. The guide offers a comprehensive framework for adopting BEPS APs and the MLI, helping stakeholders effectively tackle these issues and contribute to a more equitable global tax system. The inclusion of the Multilateral Convention’s annexure is an essential reference for practitioners.

However, the guide could further address the specific difficulties faced by developing countries in implementing these measures, such as limited enforcement resources and the need for technical support. Additionally, it might explore the practical challenges of aligning diverse domestic tax laws with international standards and the complexities of ensuring effective global collaboration.

The guide’s coverage of emerging issues, like the taxation of the digital economy, is commendable. Nonetheless, as global tax reforms loom, practitioners must prepare for ongoing changes and adapt to the challenges of taxing digital services and other modern economic activities.

While the guide significantly contributes to understanding and navigating the intricacies of BEPS and MLI, a critical examination of its efficacy in addressing the root causes of BEPS and the adequacy of these measures in the face of evolving economic landscapes would make it an even more valuable tool.


The recently released Technical Guide by the ICAI marks a critical milestone in the global effort to combat BEPS. Offering comprehensive and practical guidance, the guide is an invaluable tool for tax professionals and stakeholders, empowering them to navigate the complexities of BEPS. While it lays a foundation for strengthening global tax integrity, it also brings to light the challenges and varying implications across diverse economic systems. Looking ahead, this guide not only serves as a blueprint for current measures but also as a catalyst for ongoing dialogue and reform in international taxation.

For more information on BEPS and India’s legislative response to its APs, visit these insights on our website:

Authored by Shivam Mishra, Advocate at Metalegal Advocates. The views expressed are personal and do not constitute legal opinion.


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