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Balancing the Scales: How Anticipatory Bail Shapes Economic Justice in GST Fraud Cases


In the case of Anshul Goyal v. State of UP and another[i], the Hon’ble Allahabad High Court (‘AHC’) examined an application for anticipatory bail filed by Anshul Goyal (‘Applicant’), who was implicated in a significant Goods and Services Tax (‘GST’) fraud. This case, set against a nationwide scam, involved illegal GST registrations and the subsequent misappropriation of input tax credit (‘ITC’), causing substantial financial losses to the exchequer. The AHC’s decision in this matter holds significant implications, shaping the legal framework for anticipatory bail in economic offenses of considerable scale.

Brief Facts

  • The case was initiated from a first information report (‘FIR’) lodged by Saurabh Dwivedi, Editor of The Lallantop, alleging unauthorized GST registrations of two fake firms under his personal details. Subsequent investigations revealed a PAN India scam, orchestrated by a network of individuals utilizing forged documents to register bogus firms and unlawfully exploit ITC provisions.

  • The Applicant emerged as a suspect during the investigation, accused of participating in fraudulent activities. The investigations linked him to the scam through various evidential trails including confessional statements from the co-accused and the recovery of items such as laptops, mobile phones, and documents from his associates, which pointed towards a coordinated fraud.


  • After considering the arguments advanced by both parties and perusing relevant legal precedents, the AHC denied anticipatory bail to the Applicant. This decision was based on the nature and gravity of the offence, the principles governing anticipatory bail, and the overarching public interest in ensuring the integrity of the investigative process.

  • Citing, the various precedents, the AHC discussed the provisions of anticipatory bail in matters relating to economic offences.

  • The AHC acknowledged the extraordinary nature of anticipatory bail and the requirement for careful consideration of economic offences.

  • The AHC emphasized that the grant of anticipatory bail is not a matter of course and must be judiciously exercised, considering the gravity of the allegations.

  • The AHC declined anticipatory bail to the Applicant, citing the serious nature of the allegations against him and the potential ramifications for the financial stability of society.

  • Further, the AHC expressed concerns about the potential interference to the investigation process, if anticipatory bail was granted, emphasizing the need for a fair and impartial investigation to uncover the truth and ensure justice.

Our Analysis

The AHC’s denial of anticipatory bail to the Applicant underscores a rigorous examination of the economic ramifications and the complexities of investigative needs. The court's decision reflects established legal principles that accord stringent scrutiny to economic offenses, particularly those involving sophisticated schemes to defraud public funds. The emphasis on the necessity for custodial interrogation highlights the court's prioritization of a thorough and unimpeded investigation over the personal liberty of the accused in cases where substantial public harm is evidenced. This case not only sheds light on the personal impact of identity theft on individuals like Saurabh Dwivedi but also underscores the broader economic threat posed by such frauds. The AHC’s judgment serves as a potent reminder of the judiciary's crucial role in safeguarding the integrity of the economic system and ensuring stringent accountability for actions that undermine societal financial stability.

End Note

[i] Criminal misc. anticipatory bail application u/s 438 CR.P.C. No. - 12724 of 2023

Authored by Priyavansh Kaushik, Advocate at Metalegal Advocates. The views expressed are personal and do not constitute legal opinion.


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